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  • "Video-over-the-Internet is exploding!" See plumtv.com etc. -- But downloading is not streaming and streaming is vendor and platform independent or not. "This is how my car looked like last week!" -- Two MIME types and four extensions for three MPEG Video Playlists? We are splitting MPEG Video Playlists ratione materiae and ratione personae. What does not run on UNIX is not in the world!

    stealthbomber1
    sof
    net
    lookout
    bulb
    CongHeadnotext

    ---- begin text/google-video-pointer google.gvp -------------
    # download the free Google Video Player from http://video.google.com/
    gvp_version:1.1
    url:http://vp.video.google.com/videodownload?version=0&secureurl=bla___##1##___ docid:423346874793347869
    duration:117733
    title:Video Julia Bagliana 1
    description:Em um momento de fraqueza, nossa linda filha nos surpreende e resolve demonstrar uma pequena antipatia pela própria prima ( Ingrid), nada muito grave...rss
    ----- end text/google-video-pointer google.gvp --------------

    MPlayer dev-CVS-050529-23:17-3.2.3 (C) 2000-2005 MPlayer Team
    CPU: Intel Celeron 2/Pentium III Coppermine,Geyserville (Family: 6, Stepping: 10)
    Detected cache-line size is 32 bytes
    CPUflags: MMX: 1 MMX2: 1 3DNow: 0 3DNow2: 0 SSE: 0 SSE2: 0
    Compiled with runtime CPU detection - WARNING - this is not optimal!
    To get best performance, recompile MPlayer with --disable-runtime-cpudetection.

    Playing C:\google.gvi.
    AVI file format detected.
    VIDEO: [divx] 480x360 24bpp 15.000 fps 399.6 kbps (48.8 kbyte/s)
    ====================================================================
    Opening audio decoder: [mp3lib] MPEG layer-2, layer-3
    AUDIO: 44100 Hz, 2 ch, s16le, 128.0 kbit/9.07% (ratio: 16000->176400)
    Selected audio codec: [mp3] afm:mp3lib (mp3lib MPEG layer-2, layer-3)
    ====================================================================
    ====================================================================
    Opening video decoder: [ffmpeg] FFmpeg's libavcodec codec family
    Selected video codec: [ffodivx] vfm:ffmpeg (FFmpeg MPEG-4)
    ====================================================================
    Checking audio filter chain for 44100Hz/2ch/s16le -> 44100Hz/2ch/s16le...
    AF_pre: 44100Hz/2ch/s16le
    AO: [dsound] 44100Hz 2ch s16le (2 bps)
    Building audio filter chain for 44100Hz/2ch/s16le -> 44100Hz/2ch/s16le...
    Starting playback...
    VDec: vo config request - 480 x 360 (preferred csp: Planar YV12)
    VDec: using Planar YV12 as output csp (no 0)
    Movie-Aspect is 1.33:1 - prescaling to correct movie aspect.
    VO: [directx] 480x360 = 480x360 Planar YV12

    ------- begin video/quicktime bla.mov ----------------
    RTSPtextrtsp://some.streaming.server/hinted.3gp
    -------- end video/quicktime bla.mov -----------------

    rtsp://video.c-span.org/project/ter/ter032006_guantanamo.rm

    ------- begin video/quicktime bla.mov ----------------
    SMILtext<smil
    xmlns:qt="http://www.apple.com/quicktime/resources/smilextensions"
    qt:time-slider="true"    qt:autoplay="true"  
     qt:chapter-mode="clip">
    <head>
    <layout>
    <root-layout id="playerBox" width="400" height="300"
    background-color="black" border="0" />
    <region id="IFILM" width="400" height="300" fit="meet"
    background-color="black" left="0" top="0" bottom="0" border="0" />
    </layout>
    </head>
    <body>
    <seq>
    <video src="http://secure.ifilm.com/qt/portal/2681620_200.mov?e=bla"
    title="IFILM.com" region="IFILM" />
    <video src="http://secure.ifilm.com/qt/portalnav/getnext.mov?e=bla"
    title="IFILM.com" region="IFILM" />
    </seq>
    </body>
    </smil>
    -------- end video/quicktime bla.mov -----------------

    bus
    allah
    m4u

    You have received this page because you do not have the necessary software to watch video on In2TV -- the first broadband TV network. AOL has included rights protection on all In2TV video content and you need Windows XP and Windows Media Player 10 to experience all that this great new service has to offer.

    All metainformations ("title:Video Julia Bagliana" etc) are in the stream. See also ISMA 2.0.

    Founded in February 2005, by early commerce pioneers of PayPal, YouTube is a
    consumer media company for people to watch and share original videos worldwide
    through a Web experience. Prior to YouTube, there was no easy way for individuals
    to share video on the Web. Dealing with hundreds of multimedia formats, massive
    file sizes and difficult uploading methods made sharing personal video clips on
    the Web a daunting task for even the most tech-savvy individual.

    Try to add "text/google-video-pointer gvp" to your server and to host google.gvps as well.

    ----- begin video/vnd.mpegurl playlist aka bla.m4u aka bla.mxu -----
    rtsp://some.streaming.server/hinted.3gp
    rtsp://some.streaming.server/hinted.3gp
    rtsp://some.streaming.server/hinted.3gp
    rtsp://some.streaming.server/hinted.3gp
    ----- end video/vnd.mpegurl playlist aka bla.m4u aka bla.mxu -------

    Jean Seberg, Canadian kids etc:

    MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) est un standard qui a été proposé par les laboratoires Bell Communications en 1991 afin d'étendre les possibilités limitées du courrier électronique (mail) et notamment de permettre d'insérer des documents (images, sons, texte,...) dans un courrier. Il est défini à l'origine par les RFC 1341 et 1342 datant de juin 1992.

    workshop_800To taint or not to taintThis is not Guantanamo TwoFRIEDPROThis is not Guantanamo ThreeLower East SideGuantanamo VIIivar Utube.

  • "The Internet is for everyone!" -- But what is the best delivery mechanism? "Who owns the reel?" -- Andrew S. Tannenbaum: "The nice thing about standards is that there are so many to choose from." Less is more and more or less is enough. Let the best player win!

    lp
    karpinski
    flux
    discipul

    With its revolutionary technology, YouTube has given people the ability to easily,
    upload, tag and share video clips through youtube.com, across the Internet, and
    through email as well as to create their own personal video network. With over 25
    million videos served up daily and investment support from Sequoia Capital,
    YouTube is set to become the Internet's premier video service.

  • Rand Corporation: "While DOD has a strong interest in ensuring that various systems can work together, the entertainment industry places strong emphasis on developing proprietary systems and standards that preclude interoperability." -- MPEG Video Playlists are plain series of MPEG Video URLs in ASCII. The technic of MPEG Video Playlists is free, there are no patents, the naming is not. There are rules and you may need a prior written permission (below).

    feifei
    Libenow
    pale

    Video/vnd.mpegurl and m4u are in Apaches mime.types file, so you will most propably have them on your webserver allready, ready to be linked from your webpages, a href=bla.m4u etc.

    Get Apples Darwin Streaming Server or see what you can do with HTTP.

    All you have to do is to associate video/vnd.mpegurl in your webbrowser with your FAVOURITE MPEG Video Playlist player, see also video/x-mpegurl for HTTP, that you have to add to the server manualy, see also PHP (more on clients below).

    ------------ begin bla.php --------------
    <?php
    header('Content-type: video/x-mpegurl');
    ?>

    http://www.uni-bonn.de/~uzs106/sample.3gp
    http://www.uni-bonn.de/~uzs106/export.3gp
    http://www.uni-bonn.de/~uzs106/sample.3gp
    http://www.uni-bonn.de/~uzs106/export.3gp
    ------------ end bla.php ----------------

  • Apple makes the POSSESSION of files beautifull. There are "Blogs" and Vlogs" and "Podcasting" and "Vodcasting" is everywhere. See also "One Click Buying". But where is "One Click MPEG Video STREAMING"? -- Nothing but grey in pepperland! -- Bill Gates: "If a MIME type problem occurs, it can most often be corrected by reinstalling Windows Media Player." SMIL and SDP files are vendor and platform independent, but general and complicated (bla.smil and bla.sdp). All vendors offer special "One Click Streaming" solutions FOR THEIR OWN media. See for example Apples Reference Movies for Apples Quicktime Movies and Real Networks Real Audio Metafiles for Real Networks Real Media streams (bla.mov and bla.ram). But MPEG Video streams are NOT JUST ANOTHER Apple Quicktime or Real Media stream. MPEG Audio Playlists with MPEG Video may be funky on the desktop, but they are not usable in the net. Not all MPEG Audio Playlist players play the same!

    Slip it to me!
    basq
    marco

    HTTP streaming (Apples "Progressiv download") does work (above).

    ----- begin video/vnd.mpegurl playlist aka bla.m4u aka bla.mxu -----
    rtsp://some.streaming.server/hinted.3gp
    rtsp://some.streaming.server/hinted.3gp
    rtsp://some.streaming.server/hinted.3gp
    rtsp://some.streaming.server/hinted.3gp
    ----- end video/vnd.mpegurl playlist aka bla.m4u aka bla.mxu -------

    But you may have to start the movie manualy. Blog.de is "Two Click Streaming".

    ----- begin video/x-mpegurl playlist aka bla.mao aka bla.maoam -----
    http://www.uni-bonn.de/~uzs106/sample.3gp
    http://www.uni-bonn.de/~uzs106/export.3gp
    http://www.uni-bonn.de/~uzs106/sample.3gp
    http://www.uni-bonn.de/~uzs106/export.3gp
    ----- end video/x-mpegurl playlist aka bla.mao aka bla.maoam -------

    Ciscos http://mpeg4ip.sourceforge.net/ mp4player is the video/vnd.mpegurl reference player.

    ----- begin video/vnd.mpegurl playlist aka bla.m4u aka bla.mxu -----
    rtsp://some.streaming.server/hinted.3gp
    http://www.uni-bonn.de/~uzs106/sample.3gp
    rtsp://some.streaming.server/hinted.3gp
    http://www.uni-bonn.de/~uzs106/export.3gp
    ----- end video/vnd.mpegurl playlist aka bla.m4u aka bla.mxu -------

    We want more "SMS of Mobile Multimedia" players.

    miss

  • The words video/vnd.mpegurl, video/x-mpegurl, m4u, mxu, mao and maoam are essential parts of the MPEG Video Playlist game and this game is protected by copyright in all countries, that are signatories of the Berne convention (below). -- It is not very difficult to invent something new. You can call the MIME type video/vnd.ismaurl or video/vnd.3gppurl and the extension ismaurl or 3gppurl or whatever and have whatever set of rules. You can even have one MIME type and one extension for media and metafiles, see Apples reference.movs (video/quicktime aka bla.mov), see also Real Networks Real Audio Metafiles (audio/x-pn-realaudio aka bla.rm and bla.ram). The registration of your metafile is not necessary as well, see SUNs application/vnd.stardivision.impress, see also W3Cs application/smil etc. You may want to ignore the naming RFC, see Googles text/google-video-pointer: text/apple-quicktime?

    Buddha watching himself in TV. Bush calls for end to oil 'addiction'.





    Alexander Kluge

    Ein Hauptansatz des Ulmer Instituts

    Es gibt eine offizielle Geschichte des sogenannten neuen deutschen Films und eine untergruendige. Der sogenannte neue deutsche Film wird in der Oeffentlichkeit an den Erfolgsfilmen gemessen. Die Wurzeln dieser Erfolge liegen aber in seinen Seitenlinien. Mit diesen Seitenlinien hat sich von 1962 bis 1980 das Institut konsequent beschaeftigt.

    Der Hauptansatz heisst vereinfacht: radikale Kuerze, Erfindungen, die hoehere Laengen und Intensitaetsgrade zulassen. Das bedeutet Auffaecherung der Dramaturgien.

    1. Dramaturgie der Kuerze

    Wie stellt man Konzentrate her, montagefaehige, in sich geschlossene Kuerzel, eine Art Kurzschrift der Erfahrung, sogenannte Miniaturen. Man kann in dieser mikrostrukturellen Erzaehlweise ganze Filme erzaehlen. Dieser Ansatz liegt den Ein- Minuten-Filmen, der Miniaturtechnik (bis drei Minuten), den in Ulm hergestellten sogenannten Schlagerfilmen (Sequenzen in der Laenge von Schlagern, nach deren Musik bemessen), aber auch einer Reihe von in sich ruhenden Sequenzen, das heisst aus Miniaturen bestehenden Langfilmen zugrunde.

    Allen diesen Versuchen gemeinsam ist Kuerze, Montierbarkeit, Assoziierbarkeit; das setzt voraus, dass diese Teilstuecke in sich geschlossen erzaehlen. Wir knuepfen dabei an die beste Tradition der Montage der 20er Jahre an (Murnau, Richter, Lang, Eisenstein, Wertow, Dowschenko).

    2. Dramaturgie des Zusammenhangs

    Den genau umgekehrten Weg gehen eine Reihe von Dokumentationen. Etwag gruendlich Dargestelltes fuehrt zu der Notwendigkeit, weitere Gruendlichkeiten damit zu verknuepfen. Der einfache Weg ist, das 90-Minuten-Schema zu ueberschreiten, also Dramaturgien zu finden, die es zulassen, dass ein Zuschauer sich zwei oder drei Stunden mit einem Film beschaeftigt. Dazu muss man seinem Interesse dramaturgische Stuetzen im letzten Drittel des Films zufuehren. Diese Methode hat Grenzen. Die Urinuhr, die Abendstunden, die Tatsache, dass ein Mensch am naechsten Morgen normalerweise zur Arbeit aufstehen muss, setzen objektive Grenzen, ganz gleich, wie interessant ein Thema sein mag.

    Um deshalb dokumentarische Querschnitte zu legen und Wirklichkeitszusammenhaenge miteinander zu konfrontieren, geht es darum, Zusammenhaenge mehrerer Filme ueber ein Thema herzustellen, gewissermassen eine Flotte von Filmen.

    Eins unter insgesamt 16 Projekten in dieser Richtung sind die 22 Filme ueber die studentische Protestbewegung. Sie bilden einen Wirklichkeitsausschnitt, aber durch Zusammenhang. In der Entstehung des studentischen Protests 1966 bis 1967 in Berlin sind die Gegner, die Aengste, Versuche der Selbstverteidigung, die Motive in jedem Augenblick gegenwaertig. Den Kontrast dazu sieht der Zuschauer, wenn der studentische Protest in eine relativ ruhige Umgebung, wie die der Universitaet Freiburg, uebertragen, eigentlich "importiert" wird. Lehrer und militante Studenten stehen einander in einer Art forciertem akademischem Disput gegenueber, es sieht dramatisch aus, es wird aeusserst gescheit argumentiert, die Dringlichkeit des Motivs ist aber auf eigenartige Weise abwesend. Eine spaetere Phase: die Frankfurter Aktion. jetzt ist der Gegner im Saal Oberhaupt nicht mehr zu sehen. Die Protestbewegung spricht mit sich selbst. Ist aber der reelle Widerstand im Raum nicht anwesend, so bedeutet das Realitaetsverlust. Im Film kann der Zuschauer, ohne dass Kommentare erforderlich sind, dies sehen.

    In der letzten Delegierten-Konferenz des SDS treffen saemtliche besonderen Bestrebungen, die auf solche und andere Weise vorort ihre Geschichte haben, aufeinander, ohne ihre konkrete Geschichte mitzubringen. Dies bezeichnet die Krise. Die 22 Filme, die einen solchen zusammenhaengenden Verlauf dokumentieren, sind insgesamt neun Stunden lang. jede zusammenfassende These ueber die Protestbewegung, aber auch jeder Eindruck, der nur einen Einzelabschnitt darlegt, gibt ein falsches Bild. Proportion hat nur das Ganze.

    3. Mischform, Querschnittsmethode

    Es hat sich herausgestellt, dass sich die besten Resultate jeweils bei Kombination der verschiedenen neuen Formen, also in den sogenannten Mischformen ergeben. Langfristige Dokumentation, Querschnittsmethode (das heisst die Filme veraesteln sich) und Miniaturtechnik ergaenzen einander. Die Erzaehlweisen selber muessen sich bewegen, nicht nur das Filmbild.

    4. Fiktion, Dokumentation

    Aehnlich ergaenzen einander, richtig angewendet, die musikalisch- poetisch erzaehlenden und die dokumentierenden Formen des Films. Auch hier ist es' die Mischform, die zwischen Dokument und Fiktion, zwischen Montage und ungekuerzter Wiedergabe, zwischen Phantasie und Wirklichkeitssinn vermittelt. Soziologie und Maerchen sind eben nicht, wie man annimmt, Gegensaetze, sie sind Pole in ein und derselben Sache, die verschieden aussieht, je nachdem, ob man von der Faehigkeit des Menschen, es mit den Fakten auszuhalten, oder von seiner Faehigkeit, Wuensche zu bilden, ausgeht.

    5. Einfachheit

    Der Loewenanteil dieser Arbeit ist im Institut immer aus Mangel an materiellen Mitteln Theorie gewesen. In den Institutsfilmen aber haben sich zumindest Spuren davon festgehalten.

    Das Verblueffende in dieser Arbeit war fuer uns immer, dass in der Phantasie- und Erfahrungswelt der Zuschauer alle diese Loesungen eine einfache Entsprechung finden. Einfacher als die Loesungen, die das Fernsehen anbietet, oder die Loesungen, die die Mehrheit der Filme in der filmwirtschaftlieben Praxis anbieten. Das finden wir das Befriedigende an dieser Arbeit.

    Ihr liegt eine bestimmte Vorstellung von Realismus zugrunde, unter anderem ein Realismus, der die Phantasie und die Wuensche von Menschen ebenso ernst nimmt wie die Welt der Fakten. Fakten allein sind nicht wirklieb, Wuensche nur fuer sich auch nicht. In Filmen ausgedruckt nimmt der Standpunkt, dass sich dieser Widerspruch zwischen dem Antirealismus der Gefuehle und dem Realismus weltlicher Tatsachen nicht wegraeumen laesst, sondern gerade die Wurzel von filmischer Bewegung ist, hoechst verschiedene Gestalten an.

    Wahr ist der Kontrast, die Vielgestaltigkeit. Sie sind naemlich das spezifische Merkmal von menschlichen Koepfen und Sinnen. Ein Realismus, der davon auf Mittelwerte abstrahiert, ist keiner. Das glauben wir, und danach arbeiten wir.

    http://www.time.com/time/2006/log/log.pdf

    bag

  • Maoam is fair use of a bubblegum. Made in Germany. "Haribo macht Kinder froh und Erwachsene ebenso." M4u is like m3u. Mxu is in Ciscos open source MPEG4IP Readme etc and was our first idea to avoid mgu, see Band in a box. Mao is Mao anyway. Video/x-mpegurl is like audio/x-mpegurl. Video/vnd.mpegurl, m4u and mxu are at IANA and in Apaches mime.types file. M4u, mxu, mao and maoam are at http://www.nist.gov/nics/. -- Somewhere between the long shadow of the medieval guilds and the dominance of local custom before the automobile and plane - every mercantile space had its customarky measure. As international communication grew, so did the need for standardization. Here is Britain in 1844, near the beginning of this development.

    inetnum: 202.78.224.0 - 202.78.231.255
    netname: QTSC-VNNIC-VN
    descr: Quang Trung Software City (QTSC).
    descr: Hall 3, Quang Trung Software City, Tan Chanh Hiep ward, District
    descr: 12, Ho Chi Minh City
    country: VN

    To stream on DSS, you have to create a hinted file. Using mp4creator, you can
    do this out of an mpeg file, if it is a standard file.

    First, the simplest thing is to see if mpeg4ip can read the mpg file. Use our
    mpeg_ps_info utility to see if the file can be read.

    Next, use mp4creator to put the mpg file into a format that the DSS can stream.

    mp4creator foo.mpg foo.mp4
    mp4creator -hint=1 foo.mp4
    mp4creator -hint=2 foo.mp4
    (repeat hinting until all media tracks are hinted)

    Copy the foo.mp4 to the /usr/local/movies, or where ever your DSS root is, and
    stream:
    rtsp://server/foo.mp4

    future-is.orange.co.uk - - [15/Mar/2005:00:45:32 +0100] "GET /cgi-bin/uzs106/test/playmp4?friedr30.mp4 HTTP/1.1" 200 34 "-" "Nokia6630/1.0 (3.45.113) SymbianOS/ 8.0 Series60/2.6 Profile/MIDP-2.0 Configuration/CLDC-1.1"

    1 pound = 12 ounces = 240 pennyweight = 1818 diamond carets =
    5760 troy grains = 7260 pearl grains = 115200 mites = 2764800 doits
    = 55296000 periots = 1327104 blanks = 210 114/175 drams avoird.

    1 pound = 12 ounces = 96 drams = 288 scruples = 5760 grains =
    210 114/175 drams avoird.

    1 ton = 20 hundreds = 80 quarters = 2240 pounds = 35840 ounces =
    573440 drams = 15680000 troy grains.

    1 last = 12 sacks = 18 1/5 packs = 24 weys = 156 tods = 312 stones =
    624 cloves = 4368 pounds.

    1 bundle = 4 1/6 spindles = 16 2/3 hasps = 20 slips = 100 heers =
    200 leas, cuts, or raps = 24000 threads = 2160000 inches.

    1 tun = 2 pipes or butts = 3 puncheons = 4 hogsheads = 6 tierces =
    8 barrels = 14 runlets = 25 1/5 ankers = 252 imperial gallons =
    1008 quarts = 2016 pints = 8064 gills = 69873.048 cubic inches.

    1 lst = 2 weys or loads = 10 quarters = 20 cooms or sacks = 40
    strikes = 80 bushels = 320 pecks = 640 imperial gallons = 1280
    pottles = 2560 quarts - 5120 pints = 17455.360 cubic inches stricken
    measure = 225238.960 cubic inches heaped measure.

    1 ship load = 14 16/21 scores = 20 keels = 160 newcastle chald. =
    310 london chald. = 1240 vats or strikes = 3720 sacks = 11160
    bushels = 44640 pecks = 833280 pound weight avoir. = 31420834.92
    cubic inches heaped measure.

    1 tun = 2 butts = 3 puncheons = 4 hogsheads = 6 barrels = 12
    kilderkins = 24 firkins = 216 imperial gallons = 864 quarts = 1728
    pints = 59891.184 cubic inches.

    1 cubic mile = 512 cubic furlongs = 32768000 cubic rods, poles or
    perches = 5451776000 cubic yards = 147197952000 cubic feet =
    254358061056000 cubic inches = 917352730714.022952 imperial gallons.

    1 gallon = 8 pints = 160 fluid ounces = 1280 fluid drams = 76800
    minims = 2560 weight iin drams avoird. = 70000 weight in grams troy
    = 277.274 cubic inches.

    1 mark = 13s 4d, 1 noble = 6s 8d, 1 tester = 6d, 1 groat = 4d, 1
    moidore = 27s, 1 jacobus = 25s, 1 carolus = 23s, 1 angel = 10s.

    1 french ell = 1 1/5 english ell = 2 flemish ell = 6 quarters = 24
    nails = 54 inches.

    1 spindle = 18 hanks or 560 yards = 126 skeins, leas, or raps =
    10080 threads = 544320 inches.

    1 hank or 560 yards = 7 leas or raps = 560 threads = 20160 inches.

    1 mile = 8 furlongs = 80 gunter's chains = 320 rods, poles, or perches
    = 880 fathoms = 1760 yards = 5280 feet = 8000 gunter's links = 63360
    inches.

    + { "mpeg", "video/mpeg" },
    + { "mpg", "video/mpeg" },
    + { "mpe", "video/mpeg" },
    + { "qt", "video/quicktime" },
    + { "mov", "video/quicktime" },
    + { "mxu", "video/vnd.mpegurl" },
    + { "m4u", "video/vnd.mpegurl" },

    If you use an Internet service provider (ISP) to host your content and the ISP doesn't have the Windows Media MIME types configured on their Web servers, contact them and request that they add the following MIME types. If you must configure the Web server MIME types yourself, use the information in the following table.

    File extension MIME type
    .asf video/x-ms-asf
    .asx video/x-ms-asf
    .nsc video/x-ms-asf
    .wax audio/x-ms-wax
    .wm video/x-ms-wm
    .wma audio/x-ms-wma
    .wmd application/x-ms-wmd
    .wmv video/x-ms-wmv
    .wmx video/x-ms-wmx
    .wmz application/x-ms-wmz
    .wvx video/x-ms-wvx

    Table 1. Web server MIME types

    In addition to setting up MIME types on the server, MIME types must also be set up on a user's browser. However, MIME types do not typically have to be set manually. Windows Media Player configures browser MIME types when it is installed on a user's computer. If a MIME type problem occurs, it can most often be corrected by reinstalling Windows Media Player. If the browser does not allow automatic configuration, then you can set the MIME type manually by using the information that is in Table 1.

    Routenverfolgung zu gurke.bootlab.org [212.21.77.132] über maximal 30 Abschnitte:

    1 3 ms 1 ms 1 ms 192.168.70.254
    2 62 ms 67 ms 61 ms erx-maw1.netcologne.de [195.14.247.95]
    3 47 ms 53 ms 47 ms swrt-maw1-g34.netcologne.de [213.196.239.169]
    4 47 ms 46 ms 49 ms core-maw2-vl201.netcologne.de [195.14.195.153]
    5 48 ms 49 ms 47 ms core-sto1-vl910.netcologne.de [195.14.215.193]
    6 51 ms 51 ms 50 ms rtdecix-g01.netcologne.de [81.173.192.85]
    7 50 ms 53 ms 51 ms ge0-1-0.frankfurt-6.celox.de [80.81.192.45]
    8 68 ms 70 ms 69 ms at10053.farcix.all.de [212.42.242.241]
    9 71 ms 72 ms 72 ms 212.21.76.85
    10 69 ms 71 ms 75 ms bbtt-gw-cisco103.isp-eg.de [212.42.230.103]
    11 80 ms 79 ms 80 ms bootlab-gw.mind.de [212.42.235.121]
    12 81 ms 85 ms 80 ms gw.bootlab.org [212.42.235.122]
    13 81 ms 79 ms 89 ms 132.bootlab.org [212.21.77.132]

    Ablaufverfolgung beendet.

    Domain Name: THESERIALS.COM
    Registrar: INTERCOSMOS MEDIA GROUP, INC. D/B/A DIRECTNIC.COM
    Whois Server: whois.directnic.com
    Referral URL: http://www.directnic.com
    Name Server: NS.AVMGROUP.RU
    Name Server: NS2.AVMGROUP.RU
    Status: REGISTRAR-LOCK
    Updated Date: 03-aug-2005
    Creation Date: 09-aug-2004
    Expiration Date: 09-aug-2006

    See http://www.stanford.edu/~bgirod/pdfs/GirodFaerberWirelessVideoChapter.pdf and

    http://adactio.com/extras/talklikeapirate/translate.php?filename=http://mpegurl.blog.de .

    See also http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;165072 .

    Markus Kuhn has written a funky piece on paper sizes.

    We are missing "Add to Favourites" in Quicktime 7.

  • Vendor and platform independent RTSP MPEG Video Playlists. A working RTSP MPEG Video Playlist player is better than nothing. "Kids may be illegal" and use them for HTTP MPEG Video streams too.

    On the voyage of the Amistad, the negroes rose, killed the captain, and took possession of the vessel. They spared the lives of Ruiz and Montez, on condition that they would aid in steering the Amistad for the coast of Africa, or to some place where negro slavery was not permitted by the laws of the country. Ruiz and Montez deceived the negroes, who were totally ignorant of navigation, and steered the Amistad for the United States; and she arrived off Long Island, in the state of New York, on the 26th of August, and anchored within half a mile of the shore.Some of the negroes went to shore to procure supplies of water and provisions, and the vessel was then discovered by the United States brig Washington. Ruiz and Montez filed claims to the negroes as their slaves, and prayed that they, and parts of the cargo of the Amistad, might be delivered to them, or to the representatives of the crown of Spain.

    43. Therefore, in a war between the United States and a belligerent which admits of slavery, if a person held in bondage by that belligerent be captured by or come as a fugitive under the protection of the military forces of the United States, such person is immediately entitled to the rights and privileges of a freeman. To return such person into slavery would amount to enslaving a free person, and neither the United States nor any officer under their authority can enslave any human being. Moreover, a person so made free by the law of war is under the shield of the law of nations, and the former owner or State can have, by the law of postliminy, no belligerent lien or claim of service.

    The word "telephone" is derived from the Greek words "tele" meaning "far off" and "phonos" meaning "sound." Among the literally hundreds of things invented by Thomas Edison, is the word "hello." Edison actually coined the word, derived from "holler" in 1889. Prior to that time the most common word used when answering the telephone was "yes."

    See also Antelope and Birth of a Nation. See also Broken Blossom and Battle of Algiers. To taint or not to taint?

    Cassel: If the president deems that he’s got to torture somebody, including by crushing the testicles of the person’s child, there is no law that can stop him?

    Yoo: No treaty.

    Cassel: Also no law by Congress­that is what you wrote in the August 2002 memo...

    Yoo: I think it depends on why the President thinks he needs to do that.



    "One Click MPEG Video Streaming" may work with direct links to MPEG Video URLs, with certain players and browsers, you may even be able to configure it yourself (get Opera), but in in the reality of the net some sort of a "metafile" is necessary. See Sander van Zoosts MPEG Audio Playlists (series of URLs in ASCII), Real Networks Real Audio Metafiles (series of URLs in ASCII) and Apples many "One Click Streaming" solutions (binary metafiles etc). Real Networks Metafiles and Apples "One Click Streaming" solutions are not vendor and platform independent and not all MPEG Audio Playlist players display all MPEG Video streams. See Microsofts WMP for example, that comes with Windows anyway, not to mention Apples Quicktime and other MPEG Audio Playlist players, that do not display MPEG Video in MPEG Audio Playlists at all. The most important MPEG Video streams are rtsp://bla/bla.mp4 and rtsp://bla/bla.3gp and http://bla/bla.mp4 and http://bla/bla.3gp. See also rtsp://bla/bla.sdp and http://bla/bla.sdp, that are both RTSP MPEG Video streams.

  • Nixon in China. Apples Darwin Streaming Server may be "the Apache of RTSP streaming", but the "true Apache" is everywhere.

    Things They Left Out


    See http://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/General/Internet/WWW/HTMLPrimerPrintable.html . See also http://www.qtbridge.com/pageot/pageot.html for Apples Quicktime embed tag etc.

    person: Sitthisak Piyachart
    nic-hdl: SP102-AP
    e-mail: sitthisak@camshin.net
    address: 66 Mao Tse Toung Blvd., Phnom Penh, Kingdom of CAmbodia

    See also http://www.cbbc.org/the_review/review_archive/sectors/21.html and http://www.satlynx.net/solutions.htm . Maoam is a registered trademark of Haribo.

    See also http://lorrie.cranor.org/pubs/drm03-tr.pdf on piracy. Some people want to make money out of it, action, some people just like movies. Fiction, documentary, gestures, whatever.

    See also http://www.urban-atmospheres.net/ and rtsp://gurke.bootlab.org/cook.mp4 . Much ado about nothing?

    You can put http://blog.sotokoto.net/radio/1205/1205omar.m4a etc into MPEG Audio Playlists, but Apples Quicktime Player will hide all video (coverart, whatever).

    You can embed MPEG Audio Playlists for Apples Quicktime Plugin, a small special MPEG Audio Playlist menu will appear, a usefull feature on a webpage as well.

    The act of humanity thus performed would have been complete, had the vessel at the same time been set at liberty, and the Negroes sent to be tried by the proper tribunal, and by the violated laws of the country of which they are subjects. The under signed is willing to believe that such would have been the case, had the general government been able to interpose its authority in the first instance, as it has probably done during the short interval between the occurrence of this affair and the period when the undersigned received an authentic statement of the facts.

    See also IBMs rtsp://bla/bla.mp4 applet at http://www.alphaworks.ibm.com/tech/tk4mpeg4 and http://www.khm.de:8080/ramgen/encoder/khmlive.rm (on wednesdays).

  • cd DarwinStreamingSrvr5.5-Source/CommonUtilitiesLib, patch -p0 <bla.patch. See also MPEG Video Playlist licence below.

    ---start bla.patch---

    diff -c -w -r1.9 UDPSocketPool.cpp
    *** UDPSocketPool.cpp 2003/08/15 23:52:53 1.9
    --- UDPSocketPool.cpp 2004/12/27 18:32:33
    ***
    * 94,99 **
    --- 94,102 ----
    return NULL;
    }

    + theElem->fSocketA->ReuseAddr();
    + theElem->fSocketB->ReuseAddr();
    +
    // Set socket options on these new sockets
    this->SetUDPSocketOptions(theElem);

    ---end bla.patch---

    Ciscos open source MPEG4IP mp4live and Apples Darwin Streaming Server on the same machine? You can also patch Ciscos open source MPEG4IP mp4live, if you care about "DSS playlists". Apples "Darwin Streaming Server playlists" are not our main interest. You have to embed them or whatever as well.

    Applying that patch will cause playlists in DSS stop working.

    I think that the problem is that mp4live binds to the same port for source and destination. Hence when DSS tries to bind to the same address it fails. Older versions of mp4live didn't have that behaviour and worked fine with DSS on the same machine.

    Since my test environment had a harddisk crash a couple of weeks ago I haven't been able to give it a try but if anybody want to do it comment out the following line of CRtpDestination::start in rtp_transmitter.cpp:

    if (m_srcPort == 0) m_srcPort = m_destPort;

    Line 753 in my file.

    Apples Quicktime Broadcaster and Apples Darwin Streaming Server on the same machine seems to be no problem. Change reflector_buffer_size_sec in streamingserver.xml from 10 to 0 and you get a reasonable fast mobile MPEG Video "TV station" for worldwide delivery, that is enough in most situations. Ok, you must have the necessary bandwidth for DSS and you may not sit behind NAT.

    Yes. That works well. Usually I use Automatic Unicast (rtsp announce) to 127.0.0.1. No username and password are necessary when announcing to localhost.

    "if (m_srcPort == 0) m_srcPort = m_destPort;" will be commented out in Ciscos next release.




    See also P2P streaming at http://www.synccast.com and http://www.melodeo.com . Dont underestimate Bill Gates, allthough his attacks on mp3s etc are ridiculous. Ciscos does support mp3s in mp4s (mp4creator -H bla.mp3 bla.mp4 etc).

    The undersigned cannot conclude this communication without calling the attention of the Chevalier d'Argaiz to the fact, that with the single exception of the vexatious detention to which Messrs. Montes and Ruiz have been subjected in consequence of the civil suit instituted against them, all the proceedings in the matter, on the part both the Executive and Judicial branches of the government have had their foundation in the ASSUMPTION that these persons ALONE were the parties aggrieved; and that their claims to the surrender of the property was founded in fact and in justice.

  • Re: (nettime) Use of Computers in Preschools. See http://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types/ and http://www.nist.gov/nics/. See also Apaches mime.types file.



    live

    >>I'm not, I scream but my 3 year old will have to be an
    >>expert at building things with toilet roll inserts before he learns
    >>how to make some turtle move around the screen.

    The sympathy of the Executive government, and as it were of the nation, in favor of the slave traders, and against these poor, unfortunate, helpless, tongueless, defenseless Africans, was the cause and foundation and motive of all these proceedings and has brought this case up for trial before your honors.

    The difference between using computer and toilet roll insert is that there are
    several multibillion dollar corporations between movement of the mouse and
    something happening on the screen in the first case, and pretty much nothing
    between manipulating inserts and affecting reality in the second.

    It's about immediacy and delegation.

    The question is - do you want your progeny to become skillful in 'performing'
    in the narrow world of proprietary computer simulations, or in dealing with
    material object?

    When making decisions, keep in mind that the physics of matter has been
    relatively stable for the last 8 billion years, and that (with some skill) it's
    possible to construct an effective weapon with toilet roll inserts and
    pulverize a computer or someone's head. That's usually a more effective
    bargaining strategy in reality than being an obedient keyboard drone.

  • Leading mobile wireless technology companies call on European Commission to investigate. "If a MIME type problem occurs, it can most often be corrected by reinstalling Windows Media Player."

    live

    Broadcom, Ericsson, NEC, Nokia, Panasonic Mobile Communications and Texas Instruments have each filed Complaints to the European Commission requesting that it investigate and stop Qualcomm's anti-competitive conduct in the licensing of essential patents for 3G mobile technology.

    The companies state that Qualcomm is violating EU competition law and failing to meet the commitments Qualcomm made to international standard bodies around the world that it would license its technology on fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory terms. Absent these commitments, the WCDMA 3G standard would not have been adopted. Qualcomm is infringing these rules by:

    * trying to exclude competing manufacturers of chipsets for mobile phones from the market and preventing others from entering. To this end, Qualcomm has committed a number of abuses, ranging from the refusal to licence essential patents to potential chipset competitors on fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory terms to offering lower royalty rates to handset customers who buy chipsets exclusively from Qualcomm.

    * charging royalties for its WCDMA essential patents that are excessive and disproportionate; in particular by imposing the same royalty rate on WCDMA 3G handsets as it does for CDMA2000 3G handsets despite the fact that Qualcomm has contributed far less technology to the WCDMA 3G standard than it has to the CDMA2000 standard.

    The companies believe that Qualcomm's anti-competitive behaviour has harmful effects for the mobile telecommunications sector in Europe, as well as elsewhere, because carriers and consumers are facing higher prices and fewer choices.

  • The best HTTP MPEG Video Playlist player is Arpad Gereoffys open source mplayer (mplayer -playlist). Opera is a nice browser, Netscape was a nice browser. But we have not tested Opera for mobile phones yet.

    The MPEG Video industry is not interested in HTTP MPEG Video streaming anymore, but "Emily Postman and friends" are. Less is more and more or less is enough. The world of "AOL and Emily Postman" and the world of "Emily Postman and friends" is not the same.

  • How you can associate Real Networks Real Player for Windows with video/vnd.mpegurl and/or video/x-mpegurl manualy. Apples Quicktime Player hides video in MPEG Audio Playlists.

    On Windows 95 and 98 this is easy, see Start/Settings/Folderoptions/Filetypes. But
    Microsoft has kicked MIME out of "userland" in Windows 2000. "If a MIME type problem occurs, it can most often be corrected by reinstalling Windows Media Player." Is that fair?

    Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME) types allow for the
    exchange of different kinds of files on the Internet. For Microsoft
    Windows Media files and live broadcasts to stream properly, both Web
    browsers and servers must have their MIME types configured to
    recognize Windows Media file types. Though browsers usually have their
    MIME types set automatically, in some cases you may need to do this
    manually.

    Gurke.bootlab.org is down, but the shellscript is still there.

    Lets start with http://gurke.bootlab.org/cgi-bin/uzs106/test/playmp4 .

    61.98.124.167 - - [25/Nov/2005:19:06:06 +0100] "GET /cgi-bin/uzs106/test/playmp4?bla.mp4 HTTP/1.1" 200 35 "http://gurke.bootlab.org/cgi-bin/uzs106/test/playmp4" "Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.1; SV1; i-NavFourF; .NET CLR 1.1.4322)"

    A shellscript, that generates MPEG Video Playlists automatically for all bla.mp4s in gurke.bootlab.org/usr/local/movies. The root of Apples Darwin Streaming Server.

    #!/bin/csh -f
    if ( $QUERY_STRING == "" ) then
    echo 'Content-type:text/html'
    echo ''
    echo '<body bgcolor=#aaaaaa>'
    echo ''
    echo 'Voila:'
    echo ''
            cd /usr/local/movies
            echo '<table><th>Size<th>Name'
            ls -l *.mp4 awk'{printf("<tr><td>%s<td><a href=\"/cgi-bin/playmp4?%s\">%s</a>\n",$5,$9,$9);}'
            echo '</table>'
            echo '</body>'
    else
            echo 'Content-type:video/vnd.mpegurl'
            echo ''
            echo rtsp://bla/${QUERY_STRING}
    endif

    Those MPEG Video Playlists are called "playmp4?bla.mp4". The extension mp4 is useless, there is no http://bla/bla.mp4, there is a textfile, "rtsp://bla/bla.mp4", one RTSP MPEG Video URL in ASCII.

    But there is MIME, the MIME type is video/vnd.mpegurl.

    If you are on Windows 2000 or later, you will need a browser like Opera or Mozilla or Netscape to associate Real Networks Real Player with the MIME type video/vnd.mpegurl. There is no MIME in Windows "userland" anymore. Neither in Internet Explorer, nor in Windows 2000 and later.

    Microsofts Internet Explorer may be usable on Windows 2000, not all versions may be the same, if you have "configured" your system with Netscape or whatever first.

    See also "Things they left out" for Firefox and http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/mtypes.xpi . We should offer some "Things they left out" for Windows 2000 and "better", but we dont know how to write it, do you?

    Notice: you can allways save "playmp4?bla.mp4" etc as a textfile and copy and paste the URL into any MPEG Video Video player, that can play rtsp://bla/bla.mp4s.

    On UNIX you have Opera and Ciscos open source MPEG4IP mp4player. The extension m4u is hardcoded. So you have to add m4u in Opera/Tools/Preferences/Advanced/Downloads. Mozilla and Netscape 8 are broken insofar. So are "Things they left out" and http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/mtypes.xpi . Opera is a nice browser, Netscape was a nice browser.

    You may need a shellscript or batchfile for Arpad Gereoffys open source mplayer (mplayer -playlist).

    Our reference browser is Lynx.

    lynx mpg123 and mp3.com
    Mon, 11 Dec 2000 19:58:01 -0800
    From: collver@softhome.net(collver@softome.net)

    mp3.com uses MIME to describe audio content to web browsers. A year or two ago, mp3.com had instructions to set up audio/mpeg and audio/mpegurl in Netscape. These MIME types no longer work because mp3.com now uses audio/x-mpeg and audio/x-mpegurl instead.

    Two places to configure viewers for MIME types:

    /etc/mailcap $HOME/.mailcap

    I suggest editting $HOME/.mailcap as it overrides /etc/mailcap.

    You might already have entries placed by Netscape. If so, they assume you only use X and they look like:

    #mailcap entry added by Netscape Helper
    audio/x-scpls;xmms %s
    #mailcap entry added by Netscape Helper
    audio/x-mpegurl;xmms %s
    #mailcap entry added by Netscape Helper
    audio/x-mpeg;xmms %s

    If you don't want to use xmms, delete these lines. If you want to use xmms when in X, replace 'xmms %s' with 'xmms %s; test=test -n "$DISPLAY"'

    Then add:

    audio/x-scpls; mpg123 -@ %s
    audio/x-mpegurl; mpg123 -@ %s
    audio/x-mpeg; mpg123 $s

    See also http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/testloop.smi aka application/smil of W3C fame.

    ---------- begin application/smil bla.smil -----------------
    <smil>
    <body>
    <video src="http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/test10.mp4" />
    <video src="http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/test11.mp4" />
    <video src="http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/test12.mp4" />
    <video src="http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/test13.mp4" />
    <video src="http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/test14.mp4" />
    <video src="http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/test15.mp4" />
    <video src="http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/test16.mp4" />
    <video src="http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/test17.mp4" />
    <video src="http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/test18.mp4" />
    <video src="http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/test19.mp4" />
    <video src="http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/test20.mp4" />
    <video src="http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/test21.mp4" />
    <video src="http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/test22.mp4" />
    <video src="http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/test23.mp4" />
    <video src="http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/test24.mp4" />
    <video src="http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/test25.mp4" />
    <video src="http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/test26.mp4" />
    <video src="http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/test27.mp4" />
    </body>
    </smil>
    ----------- end application/smil bla.smil ------------------

    See http://medias.lemonde.fr/mmpub/edt/zip/20051101/133924/index.html . The Flash metafile is http://medias.lemonde.fr/mmpub/edt/zip/20051101/133924/video.swf , the movie file is http://medias.lemonde.fr/mmpub/edt/zip/20051101/133924/vid.swf . Flash metafiles are common.

    ffmpeg -hq -i vid.swf -vcodec mpeg4 -b 83 -acodec aac -ac 1 -ar 16000 -ab 32 fnac.mp4

    http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/mp4creator.exe for rtsp://gurke.bootlab.org/fnac.mp4 . You can copy and paste the URL into Apples Quicktime Player ("Open URL"), but this is no "One Click Streaming". And not all browsers support href=rtsp links.

    RTSP may be hijacked by some buggy player anyway.

    Maybe one day rtsp://bla/h264.mp4s will be for MPEG Video, what http://bla/bla.mp3s were for MPEG Audio, but there will be allways http://bla/h264.mp4s too.

  • The world of "AOL and Emily Postman" and the world of "Emily Postman and friends" is not the same. The MIME type for RTSP MPEG Video Playlists and "SMS of Mobile Multimedia" is the same.

    MaybeTV


    Opera

  • Real Networks Real Audio Metafiles are not vendor and platform independent. Apples "One Click Streaming" solutions are not vendor and platform independent as well.

    p54AEE916.dip.t-dialin.net - - [07/Jan/2006:23:55:51 +0100] "GET /~uzs106/bla/momortsp.mov HTTP/1.1" 200 42 "http://www.uni-bonn.de/~uzs106/moritz.html" "Mozilla/4.0 (PSP (PlayStation Portable); 2.00)"

    August 18, 1787
    James Madison submitted to the framers of the Constitution a provision “to secure to literary authors their copyrights for a limited time.”

    June 23, 1789
    First federal bill relating to copyrights (H.R. 10) presented to the first Congress.

    May 31, 1790
    First copyright law enacted under the new U.S. Constitution. Term of 14 years with privilege of renewal for term of 14 years. Books, maps, and charts protected. Copyright registration made in the U.S. District Court where the author or proprietor resided.

    June 9, 1790
    First copyright entry, The Philadelphia Spelling Book by John Barry, registered in the U.S. District Court of Pennsylvania.

    April 29, 1802
    Prints added to protected works.

    February 3, 1831
    First general revision of the copyright law. Music added to works protected against unauthorized printing and vending. First term of copyright extended to 28 years with privilege of renewal for term of 14 years.

    August 18, 1856
    Dramatic compositions added to protected works.

    March 3, 1865
    Photographs added to protected works.

    July 8, 1870
    Second general revision of the copyright law. Copyright activities, including deposit and registration, centralized in the Library of Congress. Works of art added to protected works. Act reserved to authors the right to create certain derivative works including translations and dramatizations. Indexing of the record of registrations began.

    March 3, 1891
    First U.S. copyright law authorizing establishment of copyright relations with foreign countries. Records of works registered, now called the Catalog of Copyright Entries, published in book form for the first time in July 1891.

    January 6, 1897
    Music protected against unauthorized public performance.

    February 19, 1897
    Copyright Office established as a separate department of the Library of Congress. Position of Register of Copyrights created.

    July 1, 1909
    Effective date of third general revision of the copyright law. Admission of certain classes of unpublished works to copyright registration. Term of statutory protection for a work copyrighted in published form measured from the date of publication of the work. Renewal term extended from 14 to 28 years.

    August 24, 1912
    Motion pictures, previously registered as photographs, added to
    classes of protected works.

    July 13, 1914
    President Wilson proclaimed U.S. adherence to Buenos Aires Copyright Convention of 1910, establishing convention protection between the United States and certain Latin American nations.

    July 1, 1940
    Effective date of transfer of jurisdiction for the registration of commercial prints and labels from the Patent Office to the Copyright Office.

    July 30, 1947
    Copyright law codified into positive law as title 17 of the U.S. Code.

    January 1, 1953
    Recording and performing rights extended to nondramatic literary works.

    September 16, 1955
    Effective date of the coming into force in the United States of the Universal Copyright Convention as signed at Geneva, Switzerland, on September 6, 1952. Proclaimed by President Eisenhower. Also, date of related changes in title 17 of the U.S. Code.

    September 19, 1962
    First of nine special acts extending terms of subsisting renewal copyrights pending Congressional action on general copyright law revision.

    February 15, 1972
    Effective date of act extending limited copyright protection to sound recordings fixed and first published on or after this date.

    March 10, 1974
    United States became a member of the Convention for the Protection of Producers of Phonograms Against Unauthorized Duplication of Their Phonograms, which came into force on April 18, 1973.

    July 10, 1974
    United States became party to the 1971 revision of the Universal Copyright Convention as revised at Paris, France.

    October 19, 1976
    Fourth general revision of the copyright law signed by President Ford.

    January 1, 1978
    Effective date of principal provisions of the 1976 copyright law. The term of protection for works created on or after this date consists of the life of the author and 50 years after the author's death. Numerous other provisions modernized the law.

    December 12, 1980
    Copyright law amended regarding computer programs.

    May 24, 1982
    Section 506(a) amended to provide that persons who infringe copyright willfully and for purposes of commercial advantage or private financial gain shall be punished as provided in Section 2319 of title 18 of the U.S. Code, "Crimes and Criminal Procedure."

    October 4, 1984
    Effective date of Record Rental Amendments of 1984. Grants the owner of copyright in a sound recording the right to authorize or prohibit the rental, lease, or lending of phonorecords for direct or indirect commercial purposes.

    November 8, 1984
    Federal statutory protection for mask works became available under the Semiconductor Chip Protection Act with the Copyright Office assuming administrative responsibility. Copyright Office began registration of claims to protection on January 7, 1985.

    June 30, 1986
    Manufacturing clause of the Copyright Act expired.

    March 1, 1989
    United States adhered to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works.

    November 15, 1990
    Section 511 added to copyright law. Provided that states and state employees and instrumentalities are not immune under the Eleventh Amendment from suit for copyright infringement.

    December 1, 1990
    Effective date of the Computer Software Rental Amendments Act of 1990. Grants the owner of copyright in computer programs the exclusive right to authorize or prohibit the rental, lease, or lending of the program for direct or indirect commercial purposes.

    December 1, 1990
    Protection extended to architectural works. Section 106A added to copyright law by Visual Artists Rights Act of 1990. Granted to visual artists certain moral rights of attribution and integrity.

    June 26, 1992
    Renewal registration became optional. Works copyrighted between January 1, 1964, and December 31, 1977, automatically renewed even if registration not made.

    October 28, 1992

    Digital Audio Home Recording Act required serial copy management systems in digital audio recorders and imposed royalties on sale of digital audio recording devices and media. Royalties are collected, invested, and distributed among the owners of sound recording and musical compositions, certain performing artists, and/or their representatives. Clarified legality of home taping of analog and digital sound recordings for private noncommercial use.

    December 8, 1993
    North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (NAFTA) extended retroactive copyright protection to certain motion pictures first fixed in Canada or Mexico between January 1, 1978, and March 1, 1989, and published anywhere without a copyright notice; and/or to any work embodied in them; made permanent the prohibition of sound recordings rental.
    December 17, 1993

    Copyright Royalty Tribunal Reform Act of 1993 eliminated the CRT and replaced it with ad hoc Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels administered by the Librarian of Congress and the Copyright Office.

    December 8, 1994
    Uruguay Round Agreements Act restored copyright to certain foreign works under protection in the source country but in the public domain in the United States; repealed sunset of the Software Rental Amendments Act of 1990; and created legal measures to prohibit the unauthorized fixation and trafficking in sound recordings of live musical performances and music videos.

    November 16, 1997
    The No Electronic Theft Act defined “financial gain” in relation to copyright infringement and set penalties for willfully infringing a copyright either for purposes of commercial advantage or private financial gain or by reproducing or distributing, including by electronic means phonorecords of a certain value.

    October 27, 1998
    The Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act extended the term of copyright protection for most works to the life of the author plus 70 years after the author's death.

    October 28, 1998
    The Digital Millennium Copyright Act provided for the implementation of the WIPO Copyright Treaty and the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty; limited certain online infringement liability for Internet service providers; created an exemption permitting a temporary reproduction of a computer program made by activating a computer in the course of maintenance or repair; clarified the policy role of the Copyright Office; and created a form of protection for vessel hulls.

    November 2, 2002
    The Technology, Education, and Copyright Harmonization (TEACH) Act of 2002 provided for the use of copyrighted works by accredited nonprofit educational institutions in distance education.

    See also http://www.lauschmann.com//egoburger/winter2005/mp3s/7-24-1Lessig.mp3

  • What does not run on UNIX is not in the world.

    MaybeTV

  • WIPO webcasting treaty proposal on the "communication of broadcasts", see also Article 13 of the Rome Convention "for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations".

    Article 7: Right of Communication to the Public

    Alternative L

    Broadcasting organizations shall enjoy the exclusive right of
    authorizing the communication to the public of their broadcasts, if
    such communication is made in places accessible to the public against
    payment of an entrance fee.

    [weaker alternatives omitted]

    The Rome Convention of 1961 has not be transposed into a single EU Directive. It doesn't need to be as it is directly effective in any Member States who have signed it.

    However as there were different national laws, the EU has sought to harmonise broadcasters rights. So, the majority of the Rome Convention protections and Rome + provisions are contained in a series of EU Directives. In summary this means that the protection that the proposed Broadcast and Webcasting treaty would grant "broadcasting organisations" would broadly be the same as the protection of broadcasters in the EU IP law acquis (mainly in the Rental Rights Directive (92/100/EEC), the Cable and Satellite Directive (93/83/EEC),the Term Directive (50 years)(93/98/EEC) and the Information Society Directive).

    What is not covered in the Rome Convention, EU Directives or the laws of any Member States is the proposal to extend rights to webcasting.

    See also http://www.bigtv.com.br/pirataria.html etc.

  • "Gamebody for adults"? See Howard Rheingolds "smart mob" (?) in action (gurke may be down).

    http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/monbijou.html

    We are mostly interested in rtsp://bla/bla.mp4s and http://bla/bla.mp4s and less in divx.avis. But you can stream divx.avis etc too, http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/divx.php .

    You can even "progressiv download" divx.avis, just download the file with Netscape or whatever and open it - while downloading, dont stop it - with Arpad Gereoffys open source mplayer (see also mplayer -playlist).

    Btw, you can "convert" most divx.avis into bla.mp4s very easily with Ciscos open source MPEG4IP mp4creator. RTSP has some advantages over HTTP, see Apples Darwin Streaming Server etc. You can "convert" plain bla.mp3s into bla.mp4s as well. You get the timeline, forward, backward etc, something you dont have with HTTP.

    Apples Quicktime does not display mp3 audio in rtsp://bla/bla.mp4s, but Ciscos open source MPEG4IP mp4player, ISMA or not, does. Who is Apple? ;-)

  • Nobody can decide such things alone.


    Series of URLs or not:

    ---------- begin text/html mov.html --------------
    <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-W3CDTD HTML 4.01 TransitionalEN"><html>
    <head>
    <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html;charset=ISO-8859-1">
    <meta name="generator" content="Pageot">
    <title>Made with Pageot - bla.mov</title>
    <meta name="keywords" content="QuickTime">
    <meta name="description" content="QuickTime">
    <meta name="MSSmartTagsPreventParsing" content="TRUE">
    </head>
    <body bgcolor="#000000" text ="#FFFFFF" link="#cc9966" vlink="#cc9966">
    <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%" height="100%">
    <tr><td valign="middle" align="center">
    <!-- Start of movie embed -->
    <object classid="clsid:02BF25D5-8C17-4B23-BC80-D3488ABDDC6B" width="320" height="256" codebase="http:
    www.apple.com/qtactivex/qtplugin.cab">
    <param name="SRC" value="bla.mov">
    <param name="CONTROLLER" value="TRUE">
    <param name="AUTOPLAY" value="TRUE">
    <param name="CACHE" value="FALSE">
    <param name="QTNEXT1" value="<rtsp://bla/bla1.mp4> T<myself>">
    <param name="QTNEXT2" value="<rtsp://bla/bla2.mp4> T<myself>">
    <param name="QTNEXT3" value="<rtsp://bla/bla3.mp4> T<myself>">
    <param name="QTNEXT4" value="<rstp://bla/bla4.mp4> T<myself>">
    <param name="QTNEXT5" value="GOTO1">
    <param name ="SaveEmbedTags" value="true">
    <embed
    src="bla.mov"
    width="320" height="256"
    controller="TRUE"
    autoplay="TRUE"
    cache="FALSE"
    qtnext1="<rtsp://bla/bla1.mp4> T<myself>"
    qtnext2="<rtsp://bla/bla2.mp4> T<myself>"
    qtnext3="<rtsp://bla/bla3.mp4> T<myself>"
    qtnext4="<rtsp://bla/bla4.mp4> T<myself>"
    qtnext5 ="goto1"
    SaveEmbedTags ="true"
    type="video/quicktime"
    pluginspage="http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/">
    </embed>
    </object>
    <!-- End of
    movie embed -->
    </td></tr>
    </table>
    </body>
    </html>
    ----------- end text/html mov.html ---------------

    and/or

    ----- begin video/quicktime bla.mov ---------------
    rtsptextrtsp://bla/bla.mp4
    ------ end video/quicktime bla.mov ----------------

    or:

    ---------- begin text/html m4u.html --------------
    <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-W3CDTD HTML 4.01
    Transitional//EN"><html>
    <head>
    <meta http-equiv="content-type"
    content="text/html;charset=ISO-8859-1">
    <meta name="generator" content="Pageot">
    <title>Made with Pageot - bla.m4u</title>
    <meta name="keywords" content="QuickTime">
    <meta name="description" content="QuickTime">
    <meta name="MSSmartTagsPreventParsing" content="TRUE">
    </head>
    <body bgcolor="#000000" text ="#FFFFFF" link="#cc9966"
    vlink="#cc9966">
    <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%"
    height="100%">
    <tr><td valign="middle" align="center">
    <!-- Start of movie embed -->
    <object classid="clsid:02BF25D5-8C17-4B23-BC80-D3488ABDDC6B" 
    width="320" height="256"
    codebase="http://www.apple.com/qtactivex/qtplugin.cab">
    <param name="SRC" value="bla.m4u">
    <param name="CONTROLLER" value="TRUE">
    <param name="AUTOPLAY" value="TRUE">
    <param name="CACHE" value="FALSE">
    <embed
     src="bla.m4u"
     width="320" height="256"
     controller="TRUE"
     autoplay="TRUE"
     cache="FALSE"
     type="video/quicktime"
     pluginspage="http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/">
    </embed>
    </object>
    <!-- End of movie embed -->
    </td></tr>
    </table>
    </body>
    </html>
    ----------- end text/html m4u.html ---------------

    and/or

    ----- begin video/vnd.mpegurl bla.m4u -------------
    rtsp://bla/bla1.mp4
    rtsp://bla/bla2.mp4
    rtsp://bla/bla3.mp4
    rtsp://bla/live1.sdp
    ------ end video/vnd.mpegurl bla.m4u --------------

    You can embed MPEG Audio Playlist as well, you'll get a funky menu!

    You can embed SDP files and SMIL files and avoid in this way that they are opened by the wrong application. See also SUNs application/vnd.stardivision.impress.

  • Ciscos open source MPEG4IP mp4player is the video/vnd.mpegurl reference player. It does display http://bla/bla.sdps and RTSP MPEG Video streams, but does not display HTTP MPEG Video streams.

    http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/kids.php

    is "SMS of Mobile Multimedia".

    http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/kids.ram

    does run with Real Networks Real Player out of the box. Our favourite HTTP MPEG Video Playlist player is Arpad Gereoffys open source mplayer (mplayer -playlist). See also the french open source VLC (m3u is hardcoded, pls is something else) and xine (xine -P).

    http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/weekend.sdp

    comes as application/vnd.stardivision.impress.

    Real Player, that may see the extension, does not display unicast sdp files. See also the french open source VLC and Arpad Gereoffys open source mplayer (man mplayer).

    SUNs OpenOffice displays it as text.

    http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/weekend.php

    comes as application/sdp and does run with Quicktime. See MIME in Quicktimes Quicktime preferences. You may have to set streaming transport to "HTTP Port 554" anyway.


    Sort of Multimedia KnoppixRastasofts Dynabole

    For a fast "quick and dirty" first exploration of Ciscos open source MPEG4IP mp4player and mp4live see RastaSofts DynaBole. The DynaBole version of Ciscos open source MPEG4IP, that we have tested, is now rather old and mp4live is not very self explaining, but the setup of Apples Quicktime broadcaster is not very selfexplaining as well. DynaBole is some sort of "Multimedia Knoppix", ask google for details. It does contain Apples Darwin Streaming Server as well.

    rtsp://gurke.bootlab.org/default.mp4

    contains URLs (ISMA 2.0).

    http://mirrors.ircam.fr/pub/dynebolic/ does not run on all laptops, but claims to contain pd, pdp and pidip, which seems to be some sort of pd interface to mp4live.

  • "dir /b *.mpg > bla.m3u" and Apples Quicktime Player . See also Microsofts Media Player.

    Yes Mathias, you can put more than one URL into a Real Audio Metafile.

    See also rtsp://bla/bla.movs in Real Audio Metafiles at www.nytimes.com.

    Yes, you can put MPEG Video into Real Audio Metafiles as well.

    3GPP, H.264 etc are just substandards.

    Theora is not MPEG, but vendor and platform independent as well. Theora is welcome in "SMS of Mobile Multimedia" for kids.

    But video/vnd.mpegurl, m4u and mxu are taboo for all Theora industries!

  • Real Networks Real Player for UNIX does display rtsp://bla/bla.3gps nicenst. It does display http://bla/bla.3gps as well.

    (last updated 2002-06-24))

    Name : Heiko Recktenwald

    E-mail : uzs106@uni-bonn.de

    MIME media type name : Video

    MIME subtype name : Vendor Tree - vnd.mpegurl

    Required parameters : none

    Optional parameters : none

    Encoding considerations :

    This media type consists of a series of URLs. URLs are textual in
    nature, however, they can be quite long and thus may need encoding in
    conjunction with transports that impose line length restrictions.

    Security considerations :

    In order to use this media type the URLs it contains must be accessed.
    This means that all security concerns that apply to URLs in general
    also apply to this media type. See RFC 1738 for details.

    The result of accessing the the URLs contained in this media type
    should be one or more MPEG files. As such, the security considerations
    for the video/mpeg type also apply to the use of this type.

    Interoperability considerations :

    This MIME type can be used on all platforms, that can display MPEG
    Video.

    Published specification :

    This media type consists of a series of URLs of MPEG Video files.

    See also Guy van Belle et al.: Power and Responsibility, Conversations
    with Contributors, LMJ 9 (1999), 127 - 133, 129 (MIT Press),

    SMIL (http://www.w3c.org/AudioVideo/).

    Applications which use this media :

    A shellscript like

    #!/bin/sh
    cat $1 | xargs -n 1 mtvp

    with mtvp as the MPEG Video player.

    Additional information :

    1. Magic number(s) :
    2. File extension(s) : .mxu or .m4u
    3. Macintosh file type code :

    Person to contact for further information :

    1. Name :

    Heiko Recktenwald, Kurfuerstenstrasse 35, 53115 Bonn, Germany

    2. E-mail : uzs106@uni-bonn.de

    Intended usage : Common

    Author/Change controller : Heiko Recktenwald

    Change History
    --------------
    2002-06-24
    Changed File extension(s) from
    2. File extension(s) : .mxu and/or .m4u
    to
    2. File extension(s) : .mxu or .m4u

    (created 20 Nov 2000)

    []

  • The technic of MPEG Video Playlists is free, there are no patents, the naming is not. All vendors of MPEG Video Playlist players are kindly invited to join the MPEG Video Playlist game. But they must support both MIME types and all four extensions, if they support any "name of the game", MIME type or extension, and can display the MPEG Video Playlist in question. "Big vendors", that make two billion dollars turnover per year or more, Boeing, Matsushita, Microsoft, Sony, Xerox etc, need an explicit prior written permission or they have to invent something new (MPEG Video Playlist Licence).

    The technic of MPEG Video Playlists is free, no patents etc, the naming is not

    The words video/vnd.mpegurl, video/x-mpegurl, m4u, mxu, mao and maoam are essential parts of the MPEG Video Playlist game and this game is protected by copyright in all countries, that are signatories of the Berne convention.

    See also everybodys http://bla/bla.sdps and application/sdp - http://www.iana.org/assignments/ - and SUNs application/vnd.stardivision.impress. Public "big vendors", NASA, NPR etc, see also C-SPAN, may get a permission for free.

    The term "One Click Streaming" was "stolen" from http://www.mpegtv.com . PocketTV can display one line HTTP MPEG 1 Video Playlists (bla.m1u). "One Click Streaming" is "1 Klick Streaming" in http://gurke.bootlab.org/~uzs106/bla/Oracle_intermedia_whitepaper_052.pdf .

    Well, MPEGTV is small and we have not seen more than that whitepaper.

    Have fun!

    H.

    uzs106
    at
    uni-bonn
    dot
    de

    More pictures!


    http://www.vervemusicgroup.com/product.aspx?ob=disc&src=art&pid=10197

    Alternative Media and the 1978-79 Iranian Revolution

    Introduction and Context

    Major social upsurges occurred in Iran during 1978-79. The Shah (king) was forced out of the country in November - despite, amazingly, public expressions of support from Washington, the USSR and Beijing, normally at loggerheads with each other - and the fiercely conservative Shi’ite Muslim leader Ayatollah Khomeini took control in February 1979, establishing an Islamic Republic. Small alternative media played very major roles in these events.

    The Shah’s father, Reza Shah Pahlavi, had been installed as king by the British in 1924 to protect their oil interests. In 1941 they had replaced him with his son to ensure continued allegiance. However, in the 1950s a major crisis developed between the Western countries and Iran’s right to its oil revenues, because the Western oil consortium not only controlled the market price of oil but also kept a large slice of the profits. In 1951 Muhammad Mossadegh became prime minister and nationalized the properties of foreign oil companies. This law was supported by many Iranians, although not the Shah’s court.

    The Shah was exiled in 1953 when nationalist forces, angry at Western domination of Iran’s oil resources, overthrew him. He was briefly succeeded by the elected Prime Minister Mossadegh. In 1954, however, a coup mobilized by the British and the CIA led to Mossadegh’s overthrow and the Shah’s reinstatement.

    Afterwards the Shah negotiated a new oil arrangement with the Western countries, and the results guaranteed a better profit for Iran than for other oil producers in the region at that period. However, with the rise of U.S. and European influence in Iran because of the oil industry boom, price-inflation rose 30-50%, with a devastating effect on the poor. This period simultaneously saw the development of a very rich and powerful upper stratum in favor of Western-style modernization.

    During the 1960s the Shah continued his modernization program, but many Iranian clergy considered he was alienating the Iranian people from the teachings of the Qur’an into both secularism and social injustice. Theological students demonstrated repeatedly against his Westernization program, especially in Qom, a leading religious center. They were particularly opposed to the opening of liquor stores. The response by government forces was to kill hundreds of demonstrators, which prompted Ayatollah Khomeini to denounce the Shah’s regime as a tyrannical Western-dominated government. (Ayatollahs are senior clerics in Iran, although there was historically no single central authority figure corresponding to the pope or patriarch in Christianity.)

    When Ayatollah Khomeini spoke out, the Shah declared martial law, and also sent military units to a variety of cities with orders to shoot to kill the demonstrators. The government claimed 80-100 people were killed in these demonstrations, but western observers calculated that at least 10,000 would be a closer estimate.

    There were then five important factors that led to the Shah’s second exile and the rise of Ayatollah Khomeini: the blatant corruption endemic in the Shah’s regime; world market demand for petroleum; the rush to westernize Iranian society, including its media; the brutality of the secret police (SAVAK) and the military; and finally the use of small media to mobilize citizens against the regime.

    When Khomeini was exiled to Iraq, he became a hero in the eyes of many Iranians. He also had access to the national infrastructure of mosques, which enabled many other ayatollahs to deliver speeches against the Shah. Corruption and repression under the Shah’s regime were not their only targets. A new law of the Shah’s government gave women the right to apply for a divorce without the permission of their husband and also gave wives the rights to discuss with their husbands the issues associated with a second wife. The transfer of family matters from religious to secular courts provoked opposition from religious conservatives. Yet although these changes were popular with the wealthier classes, they did little for the average poverty-stricken Iranian woman (The Iranian Revolution).

    A further factor which deeply alienated the religious lobby was the flood of Western, especially U.S., television programs and films which came to dominate Iranian screens during the 1960s and 1970s. The Shah’s regime had nationalized the broadcasting industry in order to exert closer control over it, and then had substantially filled up television broadcasting schedules with cheap Western material. For the religious lobby the representations of gender, women and sexuality, not to mention the absence of Muslim priorities in general, were spiritually subversive. For wider sections of the public too, not necessarily animated to the same extent as the clergy by strict religious priorities, to have everyday Iranian life and issues quite frequently “bumped” by foreign shows was seen as another index of U.S. cultural imperialism and the Shah’s connivance with it.

    The few independently-minded Iranian films which sought to reflect upon contemporary Iran were usually permitted only to be seen in foreign film festivals, but were banned from domestic exhibition. A classic case in this regard was the 1969 film The Cow, directed by Daryush Mehrju’i, which depicted the desperate conditions of life in a typical Iranian village, entirely untouched by the Shah’s trumpeted modernization drives or oil revenues.

    1966 saw the establishment of book censorship and police searches of libraries, especially those associated with the mosques. Over the next ten years the Shah approved still more repressive laws, including decrees that set long jail terms for anyone using a photocopier machine to distribute politically oppositional materials. Once arrested on a political charge, torture was normal (Nafisi).

    It is difficult to isolate one particular event that led to the final collapse of the Shah’s dictatorship. Many have argued that it was the vast numbers of demonstrators and Khomeini’s popularity. There were disturbances in over fifty five Iranian cities, and the army was told to open fire on demonstrators. From September to November 1978 Iran was in complete turmoil, with many government workers out on strike, causing many consumer shortages in major cities. Even school teachers and university professors went out on strike. There were electrical blackouts and curfews. The oil workers’ strike turned into a general strike nation-wide, yet now the army was no longer prepared to fire at will into the demonstrators, as soldiers feared for their own lives.

    To Big Oil the Shah was plainly out of control of his public and therefore of the reliable supply of oil. This further meant that the most important external support for the Shah’s power, the U.S. government, newly concerned by how this repression would be carried in the world’s media, signaled its refusal to support the Shah’s abuse of power (“The Islamic Revolution 1978-79”). When he left Iran, Washington even refused to admit him for terminal cancer treatment.

    Alternative Media Come into Their Own

    As the situation in Iran heated up, Khomeini came to send his political sermons ever more frequently via audio-cassette. The great merit of these tiny items was that they could very easily be concealed, and that the technology for reproducing them in very large numbers was now easily available. However, to maintain continual rapid response to changing events, Khomeini began reading his sermons over the phone from his Paris exile house to an agent in Iran who was recording them. They would then be rapidly circulated to pro-Khomeini mosques and to countless individuals. The scratchy and blurred quality of Khomeini’s voice recorded on the phone paradoxically lent a sense of urgency and realism to his messages (Sreberny-Mohammadi & Mohammadi, 1994, pp. 122-123).

    Once Khomeini was re-exiled to France instead of being in the relative isolation of Iraq, he had easy access to telephones and recording equipment, and was now center stage. Many news organizations adopted him as the legitimate leader of all continued resistance to the government in Tehran. The fact that he denounced the Soviet Union with as much venom as the USA exonerated him from suspicion of being ready to swing Iran into the Soviet camp. There came about, paradoxically, a temporary fusion between Khomeini’s alternative media strategy and his coverage by major sections of the world press, a fusion which greatly strengthened his dominance at home.

    The sermons and communiqués of leading pro-Khomeini ayatollahs were vital in mass mobilizations. They did not seek to persuade or even inform, but rather to summon to action, for example to a national day of mourning by the entire Muslim community for those martyred by the Shah’s regime. Those addressed were reminded of their absolute religious duty to support what is good and to reject evil, which effectively in that context signified to rise up against the atheistic, anti-Islamic and unjust Shah. This was not merely an obligation for individuals responding to their consciences. The duty was collective, one for the entire Muslim community to enact. In the Iranian Shi’ite religious culture in which the community elders had absolute right to authoritative interpretation and the mass of the faithful were required to follow them, refusal to obey risked not only social censure from one’s neighbors, associates and family, but also, and simultaneously, bearing the guilt for that sin into the next world.

    Khomeini pronounced on one occasion in one of his sermons “Your uprising is for God and the freedom of the Islamic community.” In perhaps his single most famous sermon, delivered in late 1978 during the month commemorating the martyrdom of the original founder of the Shi’ite movement in Islam, Khomeini’s rhetoric celebrated “the month in which blood triumphed over the sword, the month in which truth condemned falsehood for all eternity and branded the mark of disgrace upon the forehead of all oppressors and satanic governments…the month that proves the superpowers may be defeated by the word of truth…” and continued on “Advance together, with a single voice and single purpose, to the sacred aim of Islam - the abolition of the cruel Pahlavi dynasty…and the establishment of an Islamic Republic based on the progressive dictates of Islam!” (cited in Sreberny-Mohammadi & Mohammadi, op.cit., p. 114). The entire address to the public was in the instantaneously accessible form of Either-Or, God or Satan, nation/people or the government.

    From 1977 onwards, Khomeini’s movement also began to circulate vividly colored posters which popped up overnight on the walls of city streets. Those who put them up did so at great risk, and normally did so in small teams, with lookouts for police or less immediately recognizable members of the ubiquitous informer network. On one such poster (Sreberny-Mohammadi & Mohammadi, 1994, p. 91), Khomeini’s face dominates, his head in an ayatollah’s characteristic black turban, denoting his religious authority. His lined forehead signals both wisdom and suffering. His beetling eyebrows signify both energy and iron determination. Beneath his beard seven men are raising a flagpole with a streamer on it reading “There is only one God.”

    In the background to the right, a huge plinth with the Shah’s statue on it is being toppled by three more men. In the background to the left, Khomeini’s clenched fist is about to crush four tanks protecting skyscrapers representing US and Western power. His fist is larger in size than the office blocks and the tanks combined. In the foreground eight bodies of male protestors lie scattered in a semi-circle at the feet of the group hoisting the flagpole. Behind and above Khomeini’s head, representing the martyred protestors’ blood, are red arrows pointing up to heaven. The poster is a meld of heroic masculinism and martyrdom, religious commitment and political confrontation, all spearheaded by Khomeini.

    It is important to emphasize that a huge number of posters and other forms of alternative media of the anti-Shah movement were not Khomeinist. Another poster reproduced by Sreberny-Mohammadi and Mohammadi (op.cit., p. 101) shows the faces of ten individuals (all male), representing an assortment of secular and Islamic leftist and nationalist activists, including Mossadegh, who had led the struggle for a free and independent Iran. Three had been executed by the Shah’s regime. As soon as the Shah departed Iran, however, the temporary unity existing among these different currents of opinion fractured. This opened up a field of forces in which the legitimacy of traditional religious symbolism and rhetoric combined with the extensive national organization of the Khomeinists and the funds of wealthy bazaar merchants, to give the Khomeinists a more and more decisive edge. Their physical ruthlessness helped, too.

    Posters and graffiti, extensively covering the exteriors of public buildings, walls of private houses, public phone booths and buses, were not the only instruments deployed by the resistance. When for example the regime publicly claimed 57 victims of the army’s machine-gunning of a demonstration, the opposition circulated a huge volume of photos, many horrific to look at, with mortuary identification numbers in the thousands. Demonstrators carried huge blown-up photos as they marched, including a famous Olympic wrestler executed for speaking out against the regime and a nationally recognized poet who had been first blinded and then executed. In direct defiance of the regime’s prohibitions, the photocopiers at the universities in Tehran and elsewhere were used intensively to xerox anti-Shah leaflets and pamphlets. Electrical blackouts in cities were used by the demonstrators to paste posters and paint graffiti on walls.

    Men who wore neckties were vilified as “tie-wearers,” people slavishly following Western fashion. Simultaneously, the Khomeini camp insisted ever more vociferously that in public women must wear a veil (the hijab) over their heads and around their faces, as a signal of both modesty and loyalty to Iranian tradition. This latter claim was vigorously opposed by both the Shah’s supporters and the secular Left (Downing, 2001, pp. 124-127).

    Conventional media played complex roles during the count-down days. For example, in early October 1978 the Shah announced imminent liberalizations. Immediately the press published a 17-point demand for lifting censorship. On October 11 the military informed journalists that they had to get clearance for all items of foreign and domestic news. A number of journalists immediately went on strike. On October 14 the government issued a statement guaranteeing press freedom. Cartoons immediately proliferated showing a pen being released from a cage. Street vendors displayed signs reading “Censorship no, truth yes.” In tea and coffee houses, articles were read aloud and debated. TV news showed the bloody consequences of military repression of demonstrations. Commentators openly analyzed prison conditions and SAVAK. The regime’s foundations began to disintegrate faster and faster, day by day.

    In an equally momentous example the previous August, a fire killing some 400 people in the Rex movie theatre in the southern oil city of Abadan had also galvanized colossal public revulsion. Previous demonstrations against movie theatres as symbols of malign western influence had only targeted them when empty, but this time most of the doors had been locked, and arson was evident. And the date was crucial: the 25th anniversary of the Shah’s return to power in 1953. Because of extreme public distrust of the Shah’s media, the speed with which the regime pointed to the opposition as responsible boomeranged, and violent anti-Shah demonstrations ensued for several days. After the Islamic revolution, an Islamist group did in fact claim responsibility, asserting it had been seeking to focus responsibility on SAVAK. Media politics on all levels could scarcely have been more intense.

    Conclusions

    The consequences of the Shah’s ejection and the ascent of Khomeini had remarkable effects in Iran, but also beyond. The seizure of the U.S. embassy hostages in 1979 contributed to the electoral defeat of the Carter Administration in 1980 and the arrival in power of the highly conservative Reagan Administration. The Khomeini regime also became for a considerable time a beacon to advocates of a politically insurgent Islam across the region and beyond. However, inside Iran itself the role of alternative media in this revolution not only helped oust the Shah, but beyond that enabled extremely conservative religious leaders to seize control and set up a theocracy.

    References

    Algar, H. (n.d.). A Brief Biography of Imam Khomeini, ch. 5. Retrieved August 21,
    2005. http://www.wandea.org.pl/khomeini-iran.htm.

    Downing, J.D.H. (2001). Radical Media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

    Nafisi, A. (1999). The Veiled Threat: The Iranian Revolution’s Woman Problem, The
    New Republic (February 22)

    Smith, F. E. (1998) The Iranian Revolution (1978-1979). Retrieved August 21, 2005.
    http://www.fsmitha.com/h2/ch29ir.html.

    Sreberny-Mohammadi, A. & Mohammadi, A. (1994). Small Media, Big Revolution:
    Communication, culture and the Iranian revolution. Minneapolis: University of
    Minnesota Press.

    rubin

    Thanks to Lars Eilebrecht, Ned Freed, Alan Sontheim, Sander van Zoest etc. Have fun!

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